Saturday, March 21, 2020
Light and Dark in The Road by Cormac McCarthy essays In the novel The Road, Cormac McCarthy uses many binaries. A binary opposition is a pair of related terms or concepts that are opposite in meaning; one of which is Light versus Dark. The common idea of light versus dark is that light is always good and darkness is always evil. However this idea tends to be too much of a generalization. Not all of the people who follow the light are good and many good people do happen to follow the dark. Despite all of the issues with Light versus Dark it really is a simple thing. All it comes down to is ones personal point of view. Someone who looks upon the world as a bad place to live, who feels no hope that anything could get better, is someone who lives with a dark mind. People of this sort arent necessarily FOLLOWERS of the dark but they ARE the basic orientation of darkness. On the other hand someone who always finds the positive things in life and finds the good in almost everything is someone whose basic orientation is of the light. Neither of these is right or wrong, and each of these can make plausible arguments for their points of view. Since people who follow the light tend to be optimistic, positive, and hopeful people the boy from The Road falls under this character. Throughout the novel the boy remained to always be positive and optimistic about the south. He is filled with innocence since he has known no other world. "Maybe he understood for the first time that to the boy he was himself an alien. A being from a planet that no longer existed. The tales of which were suspect. He could not construct for the child's pleasure the world he'd lost without constructing the loss as well and he thought perhaps the child had known this better than he." (129-130) The man sees light in two ways. The first one is through the boy. He knew only that the child was his warrant. He said: If he is not the word of God God never spoke.(5) The boy is the man...
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
What's Actually Tested on the ACT Reading section Skills You Need SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Just like the ACT has four different sections, the ACT Reading section has four different types of passages for you to read. This article breaksdown exactly what's on this section of the ACT so you can plan your best approach. First, let's consider how the ACT Reading section is formatted. Format of the ACT Reading The ACT Reading section asks 40 questions in 35 minutes. There are three single passages and one set of paired passages (usually either in the Prose Fiction or Humanities subject areas). Since there are four different categories of passage, this means 10 questions after each one. Each of these questions has four answer choices, A, B, C, and D. Since there are more questions than there are minutes, this leaves you with about 52 seconds per question. Actually, it will be considerably less since you'll be spending a portion of your time reading. This is a doable task, but you'll want to spend some time working on the best waysto manage your time. In terms of the entire test, the Reading section is the third section you do, right after you have a break. This can be really good timing, as the first two sections get you warmed up and then you have a quick break to refresh and refocus. Just like the order of sections, the Reading is consistent in what kinds of passages it presents toyou. Let's take a look at thesubject areas from which the passages are taken. Types of Passages The five passages on the Reading section always come from these four topic areas: humanities, social studies, natural sciences, and literary fiction. You're not expected to have any pre-existing knowledge about any of the passage topics. Everything you need to know to answer the questions will be there in the text. Since these topics can cover a largenumber of subtopics, this chart breaks it down a little more specifically, along with some examples of passage sources from sample ACT Reading questions that introduce passages and help you put them into context. As you can see with the Natural Sciences passage, the blurb might define any subject-specific words that you might need to know to understand the text. A typical social studies passage might be taken from a textbook, a natural sciences passage from an article, a literary narrative direct from a book, and a humanities passage from an essay or memoir. Passage Subject Subtopics Sample ACT Passage Introductions Social Studies anthropology, archaeology, biography, business, economics, education, geography, history, political science, psychology, and sociology. This passage is adapted from the chapter Ã¢â¬Å"Personality DisordersÃ¢â¬ in Introduction to Psychology, edited by Rita L. Atkinson and Richard C. Atkinson (1981). Natural Sciences anatomy, astronomy, biology, botany, chemistry, ecology, geology, medicine, meteorology, microbiology, natural history, physiology, physics, technology, and zoology. This passage is adapted from the article Ã¢â¬Å"How to Build a BabyÃ¢â¬â¢s BrainÃ¢â¬ by Sharon Begley (1997 by Newsweek, Inc.). In this selection, the term neuron refers to a specialized cell of the nervous system, and tomography refers to a method of producing three-dimensional images of internal structures. Literary short stories, excerpts from novels, memoirs, or personal essays This passage is adapted from the novel The Men of Brewster Place by Gloria Naylor (1998). Humanities architecture, art, dance, ethics, film, language, literary criticism, music, philosophy, radio, television, and theater. This passage is adapted from Ã¢â¬Å"A Poem of OneÃ¢â¬â¢s Own,Ã¢â¬ an essay by Mary Jo Salter in which she discusses feminist literary criticsÃ¢â¬â¢ recent reappraisal of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s writing. The essay was taken from Audiences and Intentions: A Book of Arguments (1994). If you feel much more confident about reading about the natural sciences, for example, than about social studies, you might choose to locate that passage in your Reading section and do that one first. Some students skip around so they can answer questions about their favoritesubjects first. The questions are not ordered by difficulty, so it's fineto choose your own order, as long as you're not wasting valuable time trying to choose where to start. Now that you have a sense of what kind of passages you'll encounter, let's talk about the skills tested on the ACT Reading section. You'll need some different skills for the ACT Reading. Skills Tested on ACT Reading What skills do you need to bring to the table to understand and answer questions about these passages? According to the ACT, you must use referring and reasoning skills to accomplish the following: Understand main ideas Locate details within a passage and interpret them Interpret sequence of events and flow of ideas Make comparisons Understand cause-effect relationships Determine the meaning of words, phrases, and statements in context (these are usually straightforward, but may be used in an unusual or significant way in context) Draw generalizations Analyze the author's or narrator's tone and purpose These are all skills that you develop and improve upon in your English classes. You can further hone your skills by reading widely and often. The ACT asks 5 main types of questions in order to test these skills. I'll break down these 5 question types and give examples below so you know exactly what to expect and how you can prepare. Types of ACT Reading Questions The 5 main types of questions on the ACT Reading test these skills of understanding main ideas, locating details, and interpreting purpose and voice. Not only will you keep a close eye on what's directly stated, you'll also be called upon to interpret and analyze implied meanings. There's not huge leeway for interpretation, though - even seemingly subjective questions will only ever have one 100% unambiguously correct answer. Without further ado,the 5 types of questions on the ACT Reading: 1. Main Idea These questions ask you about the main point or theme of the passage. For example: The main point of this passage is to: A. illustrate the importance of genetics in the formation of a baby's brain.B. illustrate the importance of stimulation and experience in the formation of a baby's brain.C. indicate the great need for conducting further research on babies' brains.D. compare the latest research on babies' brains with similar research conducted fifteen years ago. 2. Detail These questions will often refer you to a specific line in the text and ask what it means. For example: The fourth paragraph (lines 31-37) establishes all of the following EXCEPT: A. that Abshu had foster brothersB. that the Masons maintained a clean house.C. how Mother Mason felt about the location of their house.D. what Abshu remembered most about his years with the Masons. 3. Vocabulary These questions will point you to a specific word or phrase and ask what it means or how it functions in context. These questions often point to a common word or phrase that might be being used in an unusual way. For example: As it is used in line 65, the termthe edge refers to a place where Abshu felt: A. most aliveB. unfulfilledC. defeatedD. most competitive 4. Function Development These questions ask you to describe the effect of a phrase, sentence, or paragraph in the context of an entire passage. Function questions tend to be about smaller amounts of text: For example: The narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s statement Ã¢â¬Å"I am looking at the MOON, I told myself, I am looking at the MOONÃ¢â¬ (lines 60Ã¢â¬â62) is most nearly meant to: F. reflect the excitement of the astronauts as they prepare to land.G. illustrate the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s disappointment with the moonÃ¢â¬â¢s barren appearance.H. express the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s irritation at having to wait for Apollo to land.J. convey the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s awe at the event that is being broadcast. Development questions, on the other hand, will as you to think about larger ideas. How are ideas arranged within the passage? Does the passage introduce its thesis right away, or eventually build up to its main point? Does it offer countering opinions, or does each paragraph expand on the previous? For example: The last paragraph of Passage A (lines 37-49) marks a shift in the passage from: A. a description of events leading up to a sudden action by the narrator to a reflection on the intentions and meanings behind that action.B. an overview of a family dilemma to an explanation of how the narrator solved that dilemma.C. an example of the narrator's typical response to family events to an analysis of the narrator's personality.D. a chronology of a historical event to a summary of the narrator's circumstances at the time. 5. Implied Ideas These are inference questions. What does a line, paragraph, or the whole passage imply? For example: It can reasonably be inferred from the passage that which of the following is a cherished dream that Abshu expects to make a reality in his lifetime? A. Establishing himself financially so as to be able to bring his original family back under one roofB. Seeing the children at the community center shift their interest from sports to the dramatic artsC. Building on the success of the community center by opening other centers like it throughout the stateD. Expanding for some, if not all, of the children the vision they have of themselves and their futures These examples illustrate the question types, but if you want to see the passages they refer to and understand them in context, you can read them them here, as well as try theremaining questions. To equip yourself with the tools you need to tackle these questions, you should study up on the literary terms you've learned in your English classes. Don't just study their definitions, but actively apply them to texts that you read, as you'll have to do on the ACT Reading. There's a big difference between knowing that tone refers to the attitude a work takes towards its subjects or audience, whether it be formal, playful, or condescending,and actually determining the tone of a given text. Let's touch on some other approaches and strategies you need toknow to excelon the ACT Reading. Tips and Strategies for the ACT Reading By knowing how the test works, you're already taking an informed approach to the ACT Reading and eliminating the chance of unexpected surprises on test day. You also want to plan your approach for reading the passages and balancing your time between reading and answering questions. Is it better to read the passage or the questions first? Should you read thoroughly or skim? You can learn more about the best approaches for ensuring your reading comprehension while making good time here. Your mindset plays an important role in your reading comprehension, too. If you can try to make yourself really interested in the passages and intrigued by the random information you're about to learn, you'll actually be able to read faster and retain more. Read this article for more tips on the best way to practice ACT Reading. The ACT tests your ability to recall information quickly and use evidence to back up your answers. The best way to practice these skills is through ACT Reading test prep with high quality questions and simply through reading extensively in and out of school. While this approach is more difficult to measure, frequent reading will make you a sharper and better reader over time. For more strategies for conquering the ACT Reading section, you can read alltheimportant tips from this perfect 36 scorer. Again, knowing exactly what's on the test is the first step in your preparation, so you're already making progressin your quest to conquer the ACT Reading. What's Next? The best way to prep for the ACT is with official ACT practice questions. Check out these 5 official printable ACT Tests, along with 6 strategies to get the most out of your studying. Are you aiming for perfection on the ACT, one section at a time? This full scorer explains how he got a 36 on the ACT and how his strategies can work for you, too. What ACT scores are you aiming for? Rather than just seeing what happens, you can take control by determining your target scores and following the test prep plan you need to achieve them. Read all about how to set your target ACT scores here. Want to improve your ACT score by 4+ points? Download our free guide to the top 5 strategies you need in your prep to improve your ACT score dramatically.
Monday, February 17, 2020
China's Stocks Head for Weekly Gain on Policy Outlook, Europe - Article Example According to the article, the stocks experience the biggest gain during the week in question influenced by signs that the Greek debt problem will be resolved and speculation and rumors about expected policy changes by the government (Shidong, 2011). The European Union has been reeling under a string of debt crisis in several of its members the most notable being Greece, Portugal, Ireland and recently Italy. This crisis has had effect on stocks across the globe. Although EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s problems may seem less of a concern to China, the truth is that what happens in Europe affects China in a big way. This is because the EU is the largest export market for ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s goods. The EU accounts for 25% of ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s exports. In the first nine months of 2011, trade between China and Europe rose 21.8% year-on-year to stand at $372.12 billion according to statistics from Chinese authorities (Banerjee, 2011). The EU debt crisis has a direct bearing on ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy because a red uction in demand here means a reduction in ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s export. Since ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy is export-based (Czinkota, Ronkainen, & Moffett, 2011), any reductions in the amount of exports have the net effect of slowing down the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economic growth. This is exactly what the crisis in Greece, Spain, Portugal and most recent Italy has done. This paper is going to evaluate the relationship between the EU debt crisis and the performance of ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s stock exchanges. The paper will find that when there is a crisis in Europe, the demand of ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s goods in these region goes down which affects the performance of the exporting companies leading to lower export earnings. The lower earnings drive the prices of the stocks involved down. On the contrary, positive indicators on the EU economic performance drive up the value of the stock in the market as people become more optimistic. As per the article, the value of the stock of major companies in China rose after the recent progress on the Greek debt problems. This is because the said progress increases investorsÃ¢â¬â¢ confidence in taking more risks. A solution to the debt crisis will also stabilize the EU which is the biggest export market for China. This stability increases the confidence of investors considering that a stable EU will buy more from China and therefore increase the earnings of Chinese companies. It is this expected increase that drives up the prices of stock as investors expect improved dividend payments. The stock increases were also supported by speculation that the Chinese authorities will undertake more measures to boost growth. For instance, the shares of China Petroleum and Chemical Corporation and of PetroChina Co. increased by at least 1.5% due to speculation that the government may give refiners the freedom of adjusting prices on their own (Shidong, 2011). The increase in the price of stock is also aided by the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s announcement that it will step up m easures to help small business to have easier access to bank loans. The government is further expected to cut banksÃ¢â¬â¢ reserve requirements to boost manufacturing industry as reports of a slowdown in manufacturing emerge and inflation eases. The case highlights the challenges the Chinese face as they do business on the global scene. On one hand the Chinese economy is too dependent on exports. This means the economy is very much affected by what happens on the global sc
Monday, February 3, 2020
Undergraduate on Teaching and Education - Essay Example Utilizing brief video clips of both children and adults to support its premise. This report e will outline and discusses relevant aspects of observation for understanding and introduce the concept of the vindictive as a powerful resource for revisiting and analysing documented observations. It will analyse and critically evaluate the multi-faceted role of the teacher and critically assess the importance of education on the life of a child. This is because teachers affect eternity and they never tell where their influence stop. This paper makes a conclusion that developing a high-quality system of teacher preparation requires the coordination of human and financial resources so that there is equity and quality in the programs offered by institutions within a state. This coordination is particularly critical in preschool education because the workforce is extraordinarily diverse in qualifications, knowledge, and experience, and the workforce is located in a range of settings that have historically been regulated differently. Most states probably have the leadership and much of the expertise needed to develop high-quality programs, but without coordination and support, it is unlikely that states will be able to transform the early childhood workforce in the way that research indicates is necessary. Education is often used to refer solely to formal education. However, it covers a range of experiences, from formal learning to the building of understanding through day to day experiences. Ultimately, all that we experience serves as a form of education.
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Conflict Resolution Theories and Strategies Conflict Resolution Conflict According to oxford dictionary the word conflict is defined as 1 A serious disagreement or argument. 2 A prolonged armed struggle. 3 An incompatibility between opinions, principles, etc conflict can be described as a disagreement between the parties, it arises due to lack of consensus between the parties. Conflict can arise due to various facts which can hinder the development in any sort of activity, generally it is caused due to: * Rigidity of rules and regulations * Inflexibility of the parties * Lack of cooperation and understanding between the conflicting parties * Due to the varied behaviour A conflict is a normal situation to happen as it is the human nature which is so varied and dynamic that persons with same perception about one thing may end up in a conflict over the other and Participants in conflicts tend to respond on the basis of their perceptions of the situation. People generally base their perceptions over their values, culture, beliefs, information, experience, gender, and other variables. Conflict responses are both filled with ideas and feelings that can be very strong and powerful guides to our sense of possible solutions. Conflicts, to a large extent, are predictable and expectable situations that naturally arise as we go on managing the complex projects in which we have significantly invested. As such, if we are able to develop procedures for identifying conflicts which are likely to arise, as well as systems through which we can constructively manage those conflicts, we may be able to find out new opportunities that can transform our conflict into a pr oductive result. Stephens P Robbins in his book Organizational Behaviour defines conflict as Ã¢â¬Å"Conflict is a process in which an effort is purposefully made by one person or unit to block another that results in frustrating the attainment of others goals or the furthering of his or her interestsÃ¢â¬ Industrial conflict Industrial conflict refers to all the expressions of dissatisfaction which arise in an employment. There are many different kinds of industrial conflict, which can be divided into two broad classes 1 Formal. 2 Informal Formal industrial conflict is an organized way of conflict through a Trade union. It is characterised by organized strikes, which is referred to withdrawal of labour so as to constitute a temporary breach of contract, using the collective strength of the workforce to avoid sanctions and achieve personal objective of increase in pay or improved working conditions. Strikes may be reinforced by other types of formal tactics such as go-slow tactics and work to rule. Informal industrial conflict is not systematic or organized, it results directly from grievances, which arise at various situations. An informal industrial conflict includes protesting through absenteeism, frequent job-changing, negligence, and even accidents at work. An informal industrial conflict has rather more severe effects on the organization than a formal industrial conflict Industrial sociologists have also regarded spontaneous walk-outs and strikes as examples of informal industrial conflict. The idea of informal industrial conflict thus draws attention to the roots of behaviour which may appear strange from the point of view of management. A conflict can arise in a company as humans of varied perception are working under a single group, but a manager should be able to anticipate conflicts as he is given a responsibility to handle the conflict, thus it is the duty of managers not only to provide solutions to industrial problems but also to predict the future conflicts by anticipating them in advance and coming up with a solution well in time so that the productivity of the firm is not affected due to the conflict Functional and dysfunctional aspects of conflicts Most experts today view conflicts as a useful aspect of an organization. It is claimed that the conflict helps in preventing the stagnation and provide new ideas and solutions to various issues, it also stimulates interest and curiosity. But a conflict is helpful to a level where it is minimum and can be resolved easily, therefore it is necessary to keep a proper control of conflict by keeping it at a minimum level, as it helps an organization in the following ways: 1 It acts as a stimulant for change in the systems which are not conductive to the organization. The existence of conflict means that there is some thing wrong with the systems, therefore it helps us in improving the systems well before in time as it can lead the organization to losses. 2 Conflict sometimes may lead to innovation and creativity as in a conflicting environment people tend to put forward imaginative suggessions to solve the problems. In such a challenging situation people usually think before they put forward their ideas to resolve issues. 3 Conflict can be used as a source of reducing the tension and frustration as people express their frustrations by means of conflict. It helps people to bring them back to their normal situation which can be beneficial for the firm. While the positives of a conflict are few and limited, its negatives are abundant and may be severe for an organization. Conflict to an extent of healthy competition may be beneficial but when it exceeds that level it becomes destructive. Organizational conflicts have led to the closure of many organizations or has turned their profits into losses. Conflict may cause disequilibrium in an organization, it may lead to diversion of resources from constructive to the destructive activities also it is one of the major cause of stress and tension in an organization which leads to the decrease of overall productivity. These destructive causes by conflict are also known as dysfunctional aspects of conflict. But it is believed by certain scholars that Conflict itself does not create a problem, although it is the mismanagement of a conflict that can lead to a problem. Thus the negatives of conflict overweigh its positives and an organization should try to remove the conflict from its very basic roots so as to sustain in the long run therefore the companies adopt various methods to resolve conflicts, but as a manager you should always give priority to that method which assures that the same conflict is not going to arise in the organisation. The process of removing organizational conflict is known as conflict resolution. Conflict Resolution Conflict resolution is the process of reaching an agreement between the parties which are having a conflict or it is a process of reaching a consensus and improve the cooperation between the conflicting parties, conflict resolution is a way to overcome the problems of conflict. Conflict resolution includes strategies that help in handling the disputes between the conflicting parties. A given conflict should be viewed from the point of view of the issues that had led to its creation in order to resolve it and ensure that the conflict does not arise on the same grounds again. Thus conflict resolution refers to strategies of disposing off or settling disputes which may otherwise lead to violence or damage the relationship between various people, so it is always better to diffuse and resolve conflict before it damages the relations. Negotiation as a Method of conflict resolution. Methods of conflict resolution were originally developed for purposes of business management gradually these were used in the fields of international relations, legal settings etc. According to the principles of conflict resolution, the only true solution to a conflict is one that attempts to satisfy the inherent needs of all the parties involved. Thus an organisation should adopt such a method for conflict resolution that comes up with a solution for all the parties, it should come up with a resolution that satisfies the needs of all of them, because only those methods of resolving conflicts irradiates it and leaves less scope for the rise of conflict on the same issue. Thus to resolve organizational conflicts negotiation is the best way in which it can be resolved, as it is through negotiations that the objective of both the parties are considered and a point of consensus is reached through mutual negotiation by the parties. Negotiation Negotiation is one of the most useful approach used to make decisions to resolve organizational disputes. Negotiation is the most diverse approach to conflict resolution. Most conflict resolution programs employ some form of negotiation as the primary method of communication between parties. Hence it is also the major building block for many other alternative conflict resolution procedures, as it guides the organization to resolve disputes in one way or the other. Negotiation in an organization occurs between, managers and staff, employers and employees, professionals and clients, within and between organizations and between agencies and the public. Negotiation is a problem-solving technique in which two or more people who are in conflict with each other discuss their differences and issues so as to reach a joint decision on their common concerns. Negotiation requires participants to identify issues about which they differ, educate each other about their needs and interests, generate possible settlement options and bargain over the terms of the final agreement. In todays competitive environment negotiation is such a common problem-solving procedure that it is in everyones interest to be familiar with negotiating skills. Conflict resolution through negotiation is that it helps in * Reduction of the obstacles to communication * Maximized exploration of the alternatives to resolving the conflict * Satisfaction of everyones needs * Developing negotiating channel to stop future conflicts * Establishment of a model for future conflict resolution Review of literature Abstract 1 Conflict Resolution: The author of this article has elaborated that there are certain persons who hate conflicts based on their personality, the author believes that for everything there is a right time or in other words, timing is critical, in todays competitive world you should not just do the right thing but do the same at the right time. Before getting into conflict you should be able to answer three basic questions. Is the other party doing something that is getting in the way of your happiness or success, is the issue of such importance that the conflict should be raised, is the conflict with that person going to resolve the issue.. when all of the above queries give a positive answer you should then decide to go for action but it is advisable to first analyse the whole situation and then make a decision Abstract 2 Workplace conflict resolution This article provides that the prime cause of the work place conflict is due to the organization leaders who are responsible for creating an environment of disagreements and differences of opinion. In order to prevent the organisation from loss the managers should try to resolve through their intervention. This articles provides us with dos and donts in Conflict Resolution which can help in resolving a conflict in a better way. Resolving a conflict is challenging, however as a manager or supervisor, the role of mediator comes with your job. Your willingness to appropriately intervene sets the stage for resolution of conflict. And you should always remember to resolve the conflict in a manner that it is fully resolved. Abstract 3 Creating a Respectful Workplace: Workplace Conflict Resolution Strategies This article provides that people should feel good at the place where they go to work everyday, and different opinions regarding work may arise which may lead to conflict, and a respectable work place emphasise on implementation of workplace conflict resolution strategies . companies establish policies with an intention of preventing workplace conflict but its not a complete solution for the prevention of conflicts. However it is through continues interaction between people working in the organization with managers which can create a good work environment with an emphasis on the organisational culture. By developing such a healthy work environment you may be able to know the situation well in advance and devise strategies to prevent the conflict with a proactive approach. Abstract 4 Organizational Conflict The Good, The Bad The Ugly An organization in general does not consider a conflict as a way of getting the information from subordinates so that they may take corrective action before the worst. Organizations consider conflicts as unpleasant and time-consuming. Though organizational conflicts need not be destructive provided conflict is properly managed and directed towards resolving the issue. However the management of conflict requires that the persons in conflict are able to understand the purpose and root cause of conflict. A conflict can be constructive if it is properly managed, it can lead towards the organizational and individual growth. But when there is a mismanagement of a conflict it becomes destructive for the firm as well as its employees, usually the mismanagement of conflict arises when a conflict is avoided. Abstract 5 Is Conflict Prevention the Same As Conflict Avoidance A conflict can be resolved through logical approach or the emotional approach . the basic difference between avoiding and preventing the conflict is that preventing refers to use of precautions in order to keep a person away from conflict whereas avoidance means not to take care of the consequences and letting the conflict to grow rather than acting in the manner to prevent the conflict. A conflict can be destructive or constructive in its nature, a conflict is made destructive by not properly addressing the problems associated with it or by avoiding the conflict, however if it is managed properly or duly taken care of or prevented at the right time, it can prove to be constructive for an organization. Conflict prevention is not however binding a person to listen to the other party even if we disagree, a person should rather clarify almost every issue in which there is a disagreement which otherwise may act as a base of some other conflict. we should always approach the conflict with a positive approach, that a conflict has come into existence due to its importance and try to prevent the conflict in the future a conflict should not be however avoided so as to bring out positive results. Abstract 6 Resolving conflict rationally and effectively Effective conflict resolution skills of a manager can make the difference between its outcomes which may be positive or negative, on the other hand, if conflict is not handled efficiently, the results can be destructive. Thus a conflict should be resolved rationally and effectively as when a conflict gets mismanaged its effect is devastating for the firm on the whole. Thomas and Kilmann provided us with five styles of dealing with conflict which are. The Thomas-Kilmann Conflict styles (TKI) help us to identify, various style towards which people tend to move as the conflict arises: * Competitive style is used for the situation to prevent the exploitation by the other party * Collaborative style is used when the people cooperate effectively to satisfy almost all people involved * Compromising style where a solution that will at least partially satisfy everyone * Accommodating style where one party sacrifice to meet the needs of others. * Avoiding the conflict These styles may be used in resolving the conflicts, conflict management styles tend to come out with a solution to various conflicts, however different styles are different in their approach of resolving conflicts and may suit different situations. Abstract 7 Type related conflicts Conflict at work occurs due to a number of reasons, this article has explained the type of conflicts, through describing conflicts between Extraversion-Introversion, and Sensing-Intuition. People who prefer Extraversion work at a rapid pace. They develop their ideas by talking to individuals, resulting in frequent changes of direction during the course of a discussion. People who prefer Introversion want to process internally and do not share with others the course of action planned by them informally hence they rely on their own judgement only. This results in Extraverts seeing Introverts as people who are not interested in work, while Introverts see Extraverts as the people who lose out all the secrets of an organization. this may lead to the conflicts between Extraverts and Introverts Similarly people consider Sensing and Intuition to base their decisions, people who prefer Sensing comes with a solution whose implementation may not be accepted by the person who bases their decisions on Intuition. Thus this may be the base for the conflict between the parties. Abstract 8 How to Resolve Conflict Conflict at work occurs due to a number of reasons, this article has explained the type of conflicts, through describing conflicts which arise at the workplace due to the varying behaviour and varying solution to problems based on their Thinking-Feeling and Judging-Perceiving the decisions of the people who work in the organization may vary due to their varied decisions to the problems based on their Thinking-Feeling and Judging-Perceiving which creates conflicting situations between the parties as People who prefer thinking may not accept the solutions to the problem which is based on thinking and people who base their decisions on judging may not accept perceived solutions which may lead to conflict at the workplace Abstract 9 Ethical Conflict Resolution / Anger Management Tips This article is based on the management of anger while resolving conflicts. The author bases conflict is natural according to the varied human behaviour but we can resolve the same by knowing about human nature, and if we consider the human nature there may be the better the outcome for parties in conflict. The author has given tips to resolve conflicts which include: Be proactive instead of being reactive to the situation. Control your anger Do not tell people directly that they are wrong Look for mutual solution Admit that if there were any wrong decions made by your side Before telling people they are wrong admit your mistakes on the same Abstract 10 Basic Negotiating Tips This article provides us with some basic negotiation principles, skills, hints and tips in order to have a negotiation between conflicting parties. Negotiation should be a two way process, it should not come up with the benifet of one party at the cost of the other. Through negotiation we should be able to understand the needs of the other party. When we talk about negotiation we should never blame the other person for the cause of conflict rather we should be able to come up with a solution by mutual cooperation. If the negotiating parties blame each other in negotiating, they can create the worst situation. The author has also provided with some negotiation tips which may be helpful to negotiate the conflict. * Respect the Perspective of the other party. * Determine your Needs clearly without creating confusion. * Come up with Options Beforehand in order to resolve conflict. * Dont Argue with the other party * Consider Timing of negotiation as regarding the situation of the conflict Abstract 11 Understanding and Managing Conflict It has been said that the Chinese symbol for conflict is a combination of the symbols for opportunity and danger. This suggests that, at least in the Chinese culture, conflict includes the opportunity for resolution, and carries significant consequences if it is not resolved. Conflict generally falls into one of three levels. Level 1. Cant We Just Get Along Level 2: I Intend to Win. Level 3: I Will Make You Hurt. Identifying the right third-party intervener, whether an attorney, a mediator or an arbitrator, is the most critical part in predicting the success of a conflict resolution process. understanding the basics of conflict resolution, and by implementing the strategies appropriate to the situation, a person in conflict can find ways to successfully resolve the conflict and take the danger out of the Chinese character, leaving an opportunity for growth and learning. Abstract 12 Conflict Resolution Conflict can be viewed as a difference in perspectives: what you see, think, feel, and believe may be different from what I see, think, feel, and believe. While conflict can be a positive influence, it is not necessarily something that people want to face every day. As the saying goes, too much of a good thing is ? well, too much!. Conflict should therefore be resolved keeping in view win-win strategy which involves collaboration and negotiation. It is based on interests rather than positions One way that people grow is through overcoming challenges and developing good problem-solving skills. And if work environments support new ideas and encourage constructive criticism in an open, blame-free setting, problem-solving skills are encouraged and nurtured. As leaders and professionals, we can facilitate and support a win-win problem-solving workplace Abstract 13 Conflict resolution Conflict from the Latin root to strike together can be defined as any situation where incompatible activities, feelings, or intentions occur together. Conflict may take place within one person, between two or more people who know each other, or between large groups of people who do not know each other. the conflict may remain unexpressed, as in avoidance and denial A given conflict may be defined in terms of the issues that caused it, the strategies used to address it, or the outcomes or consequences that follow from it. conflict resolution refers specifically to strategies of diffusion developed during the second half of the twentieth century as alternatives to traditional litigation models of settling disputes. Based on the idea that it is better to expose and resolve conflict before it damages peoples relationships or escalates into violence, methods of conflict resolution were developed in business management and gradually adopted in the fields of international relations, legal settings, and, during the 1980s, educational settings. Abstract 14 Conflict Resolution Conflict resolution is an umbrella terms that covers may different methods that can be used to resolve the conflict. While everything a person does toward ending the conflict, no matter how unfortunate, is technically a form of conflict resolution, conflict resolution is also commonly called ADR which stands for Alternative Dispute Resolution. Common Types of Conflict Resolution are: Negotiation Mediation Arbitration Abstract 15 Conflict Negotiation Strategies Negotiations are the key to reaching agreement in a conflict situation. Without the proper training, it can be very difficult to reach a satisfactory agreement with your counterpart in a tense negotiation setting. Conflict arises because you and the other party in a business deal have differing opinions about what solution is the best outcome for a particular situation. It might be the wording of a contract, or the terms of a sale. One of the most important skills a negotiator will learn in training is formulating a clear objective of what to expect from the process of negotiating. You can also achieve a successful conflict negotiation by first beginning to reach an agreement on some small issues. Once you have some agreement, begin to build on this. By doing so, it may help you to achieve the ultimate resolution that you desire. Abstract 16 Two Common Mistakes in Negotiation Many people make two mistakes regarding their thinking about negotiation. One is the belief that negotiation is a formal event, such as a meeting at a conference table. This blinds them to the fact that they are negotiating all the time. Another is that they associate negotiations with money. The truth is, most negotiations dont concern money. Negotiations are about relationships decisions. At a personal level, at work, or between countries, specifics may vary, but negotiation is about improving the quality of life. Negotiations may be connected with a person: Personally Professionally For the Company Globally within between countries most actions are the result of negotiations, the negotiations of our leaders determine the world our children grandchildren will inherit. Abstract 17 Conflict and Negotiation The gradual shift over the last years form a focus on resolution to a focus on settlement has had an important implication for the conflict field. It has increased the importance of understanding negotiation. One of the ways for effective conflict settlement is enlightened self interest (Robin J.Z. 1989) which is a behaviour that allows moving towards your objectives in negotiation, and at the same time make it possible for other party to approach his/her goal. It is tempting for parties to a conflict to begin by experimenting with a set of adversarial, confrontational in the hope that these will work. People usually make a mistake by thinking why not give hard bargaining a try a first Negotiation is one of the tools that help settling a conflict; I would even say that also one with the most creative opportunities. Negotiators have well-recognized interests in the outcome, either in getting a settlement It is always better to try negotiating the conflict first than give it away and let an arbitrator decide about a solution. Abstract 18 Negotiation Conflict Styles Conflict situations occur when the needs of two or more negotiators appear to be incompatible or opposite. There are five models of resolving conflicts, All five profiles of dealing with conflict are useful in different situations. Although were capable of using all five, most of us tend to have one or two preferred negotiation conflict styles that we use unconsciously in most conflict situations. Compete (I win You lose) Accommodate (I Lose You Win) Avoid (I Lose You Lose) Compromise (I Lose / Win Some You Lose / Win Some) Collaborate (I Win You Win) Abstract 19 Summary Conflict Negotiation: Psychological Dynamics Conflict in negotiation may have a psychological basis that doesnt fully show itself at the negotiation table. There are many reasons why people respond defensively, or with some measure of hostility. We have to engage in communication to better understand the underlying reason behind this behaviour. A cooperative atmosphere can only be engendered when both parties think cooperatively, and believe that the other party will abide by any agreement they reach. It always takes one party to act first by being collaborative. Negotiators must always strive to fully understand the real interests that lay behind the position. Abstract 20 What Is Win-Win Negotiation? We need to appreciate that not just any agreement leads to a win-win scenario or outcome in our negotiations. In reality, very few negotiations reach this inspirational and theoretical ideal. Time constraints all too often straight-jacket how long and far we can explore. Attitudes, positions and skills set invisible boundaries that constrain what we see as possible. Win-win deals are more likely when set up correctly through effective use of framing, research and building relationships at the right levels. If a win-win approach is appropriate, its essential that we remember to pursue a win-win agreement for both parties. Abstract 21 Conflict Cooperation In The Workplace Is Conflict Bad? Many of us think that conflict is always bad. Thats not true. There are actually two kinds of conflict that occur, and learning which is which will help you handle each type better. how it works, how to avoid it, and how to deal with it when it occurs. It is indeed the rare organization that doesnt have to face the issue of conflict, In the workplace (and almost any setting), you are likely to find two forms of conflict. The first is conflict about decisions, ideas, directions and actions. We will call this substantive conflict since it deals with disagreements about the substance of issues. The second form, personalized conflict is often called a personality conflict. In this form, the two parties simply dont like each other much. Solution Strategies Identification Move To Substantive Issues Work To Prevent Personalization Abstract 22 How to Negotiate a Win-Win Conflict Resolution Once co workers get stuck in the points of disagreement, progress is stalled, and the team suffers. In these situations, teams need a step-by-step framework for conflict resolution, to move them from breakdown to breakthrough, these steps include :Determine the real problem, Identify goals, Generate other options, Examine the options and select one, Implementation and Set a review date. Abstract 23 Resolving Conflict in Work Teams As organizations continue to restructure work teams, the need for training in conflict resolution will grow. Conflict arises from differences, and when individuals come together in teams, their differences in terms of power, values, and attitudes contribute to the creation of conflict. To avoid the negative consequences that can result from disagreements, most methods of resolving conflict stress the importance of dealing with disputes quickly and openly. Conflict is not necessarily destructive, however. When managed properly, conflict can result in benefits for a team. Conflict in work teams is not necessarily destructive, however. Conflict can lead to new ideas and approaches to organizational processes, and increased interest in dealing with problems. Abstract 24 Methods of Conflict Resolution There are a number of different conflict resolution methods and tools that are available for people who are dealing with conflict. Conflict resolution methods usually involve talking the problem through and making sacrifices and compromises rather than inciting violence and fighting over the problem. Conflict Resolution Methods and Principles Think Before You React Actively Listen Promise a Fair Process Strive to Attack the Problem Take Responsibility Communicate Directly Find True Interests Be Future-Focused Explore Options for Mutual Advancement Abstract 25 Conflict Resolution Tips Although conflict is something that is unavoidable in our lives, conflict is quite full of opportunities. Still, conflict resolution is stressful and often frustrating without the right conflict resolution tips. If you want to commit yourself to conflict resolution, consider the conflict resolution tips Be Respectful Control your Emotions Use a Structured Process for Hot Topic Interactions Understand Willingly Communicate Openly and Hon
Saturday, January 18, 2020
Why many Filipino people are forgiving? Giving offenders a Ã¢â¬Å"second chanceÃ¢â¬ rather than punishing them is inherently Filipino. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s take for example the apology offered by the Magdalo mutineers which comes as no surprise in light of the Filipinos forgiving nature. Despite the very good laws we have here in the Philippines, we donÃ¢â¬â¢t think settlement of it will still be possible. We rarely condemn people, we just require them to change their ways. Ms. ArroyoÃ¢â¬â¢s granting of amnesty towards the Magdalo mutineers is just one of the issues that shows Filipinos tend to forgvive. We are not very legalistic except on impersonal matters, such as cases involving money or disputes between big corporations that donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a human face. For example, everyone agrees that we should go after tax evasion. Under the Filipino concept of justice, what is prescribed by law is not necessarily just. We tend to forgive easily when we find something valid in the reasons behind the offense. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why we have the phrase Ã¢â¬Ënadadaan sa magandang usapanÃ¢â¬â¢. The way we are raised by our families could affect the way we understand and look into the contexts of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior. For example, rather than be rigid over rights or claims, step siblings generally do not regard with spite but look after each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s welfare even when one is illegitimate. And of course, the prodigal child is always given a second chance. No wonder why there are many unresolved cases in the Philippines. Some were given pardon by the government like the case of the former president Ejercito Estrada. Could it be the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s way to come clean in the eyes of other countries in promoting the tourism industry? To front them that itÃ¢â¬â¢s easy to settle agreements here would attract many investors in the country. WeÃ¢â¬Ëll, if thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the case, many might really take advantage on the situation. And this would just prove that we donÃ¢â¬â¢t have rigid implementation of the very good laws here in the Philippines. This is also the reason why some government officials seems relaxed and other foreign countries doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t give much importance on Filipinos welfare in their land and they just take it easy when it comes to Filipinos. Maybe because they know the fact that we donÃ¢â¬Ët experience justice even in our own land, and we are used to it. Pity to those who really experience that kind of treatment. Upon hearing this, I bursted to the cab driver saying Ã¢â¬Å"ito hirap sating mga Pinoy e, kapag tayo nahuli sa ibang bansa ng drug trafficking Ã¢â¬â death penalty, kapag sila nahuli natin wala pang isang linggo nakalaya na. Ã¢â¬ ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s a big problem with our government or our Filipino blood Ã¢â¬â we are too soft, too forgiving. This is one of the reasons why most of us have no pride and dignity when we are in another soil. I really want to thank Manny Pacquiao for giving the Filipinos some pride. How should other country value our laws when we Filipinos donÃ¢â¬â¢t put much attention to these and some just donÃ¢â¬Ët take it seriously? When we are in their country we are treated like rats but when they are in our country they are treated like kings. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know whatÃ¢â¬Ës wrong. If a Filipino guy will enter a building in his own country the security guard will look for an ID with intense body search but if they will see that the guest is a foreigner, Filipinos will happily greet them without checking their bags not even thinking that they could be the terrorist that will kill them. I have nothing against to any foreigners but I got beef with my own blood. If this will continue, probably we will become slaves in our own country.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
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